The DUAL-KLAS-NIR represents a significant advancement over the well-established DUAL-PAM-100 system. The DUAL-PAM-100 employs one pair of wavelengths in the near infrared (NIR) to measure absorption changes related to redox alterations of the photosystem I reaction center. Using four wavelength pairs in the NIR, the DUAL-KLAS-NIR is capable of unequivocally discriminating redox changes of plastocyanin (PC), PS I reaction center (P700) and ferredoxin (Fd).
By applying an innovative analytical approach, the DUAL-KLAS-NIR acquires the in vivo spectral characteristics of pure PC, P700 and Fd. This spectral information allows to monitor online the redox changes of P700, PC and Fd, and to determine ratios of PC/P700 and Fd/P700.
Like the DUAL-PAM-100, the DUAL-KLAS-NIR is also a PAM chlorophyll fluorometer. The device can excite fluorescence by green or blue PAM measuring light. Green light penetrates deeper than blue light into the leaf. Thus, green-excited fluorescence includes information from deeper leaf layers and, thus, is well-suited for comparison with the NIR absorption measurements which always probe the entire leaf.
The software of the DUAL-KLAS-NIR shares many features with that of the DUAL-PAM-100. Hence, getting started with the DUAL-KLAS-NIR is particularly straightforward for users of the DUAL-PAM-100. Using automated measuring routines of DUAL-KLAS-NIR software, even complex measuring protocols can be easily performed.